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ijcrb.webs.comJANUARY 2012
VOL 3, NO 9INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS Inter-Industry differences in capital structure and product market competition: Evidence from Iranian companies
Mehdi Abzari Professor , University of Isfahan, Iran
Faculty of Administrative Science & Economics Department of ManagementSaeed Fathi Assistant Professor, University of Isfahan, Iran
Faculty of Administrative Science & Economics Department of ManagementArineh Torosian Graduate student, (Corresponding author)
University of Isfahan, Iran Faculty of Administrative Science & Economics Department of ManagementAbstract The purpose of this paper is to investigate empirically the existence of inter- industry differences in the capital structure and product market competition of corporations listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. We study an balanced panel dataset of 603 firm-year observations in 8 industries from 2001 to 2009. The technique used for this is one way analysis of variance. Employing this parametric method, this study finds that there are significant differences in the debt ratios and product market competition across different industries. Keywords: Industry Effect; Capital Structure; Product Market Competition; Market Structure 1. Introduction The relationship between industry membership and capital structure has received considerable attention. The industry in which a firm operates is likely to have a significant effect on its capital structure. Besides the corporate capital structure characteristics like non-debt tax shields, research and development, fixed assets, individual products that are parts that sum to a whole; Kahle and Walking (1996) noted four additional applications of industrial classification. They are applied, first to identify control firms within the same industry; second, to describe the industrial composition of the sample; third, to filter firms for specific investigations; and fourth to determine whether…

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Gabriel SeguiKatie PaolellaEnglish 1D10 November 2015Literary AnalysisThese two different stories “The Necklace” and “The Monkey’s Paw” have many have many similarities and differences that can be found after reading both stories. This essay will providing all the similarities and differences that I could find after looking into the themes, settings, symbolism, characterization, and foreshadowing of these stories. “The Necklace” is about a woman named Loisel who believes that she was born into the wrong social class and longs to be rich like some of her friends. One day she borrows a necklace from one of those friends and loses it and spends the rest of her life repaying the debt that the necklace put her in only to find out that it was a replica necklace. The story “The Monkey’s Paw” is about a family who is given a monkey’s paw, something extremely similar to a genie’s bottle, and things start to go wrong when they start getting exactly what they wish for. The story “The Monkey’s Paw” is about a family who is given a monkey’s paw, something extremely similar to a genie’s bottle, and things start to go terribly wrong when they start getting exactly what they wish for.
Some similarities that the stories “The Monkey’s Paw” and “The Necklace” have are that the main characters each lose something. In “The Monkey’s Paw”, Mr. and Mrs. White lose their son, and in “The Necklace”, Loisel loses her necklace. which both had a major effect on the characters in both of these stories. Another similarity that these stories have is that

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