The Cold War
The Cold War, the era from 1945 to 1963, was the time when the American population was in fear in response to the “threats” from the USSR and its expansionist policies of the communist government. The U.S. foreign policy opposed this movement differently depending on the president at the time, from Truman to Eisenhower to Kennedy, and each president differed in its effectiveness at those times. While the Truman foreign policy marked by the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan was active and effective to rebuild the economy of European nations, Eisenhower’s quiet, calm policy proved to be effective and ineffective differing on the diplomatic, and Kennedy’s policy was marked by its failure to stop the Arms Race first, and in the Bay of Pigs.
The foreign policy of Truman took perhaps the most active and effective measures among those of all presidents. The key idea behind his policies was containment, conceived by George Kennan soon after WW2, intended to check the expansionist designs of the Soviet Union through economic, military, diplomatic, and political means (Doc B). The Truman Doctrine, which called for immediate economic and military aid to Greece that was threatened by a communist insurrection, and to Turkey, which was under pressure from Soviet expansion in the Mediterranean (Doc A). By announcing such doctrine, Truman sought to protect those countries from falling under Soviet influence after Britain announced that it could no longer give them aid. In response to Truman’s message, Congress appropriated $400 million in aid. The Marshall Plan was the epitome of this doctrine, being a four-year program proposed by U.S. Secretary of state George C. Marshall provided foreign assistance to seventeen western and southern European nations during World War II reconstruction (Doc F). This was a key factor in stimulating their economies and stabilizing their political structures, proving the Truman Doctrine effective in benefiting the European nations…
The Cold War